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名词解析[各位不断添加中]

感谢XTosti提供原文,也感谢大家的支持,希望本文可以让大家对profile有更深的了解。本文中profiler一律被翻译为侧写,profiler被翻译为侧写员。
再次感谢XTosti提供原文。


作者:Christophe Huynh     本文只是翻译没有任何商业用途。

“痛苦中,受害人的尖叫声越来越轻。杀戮行为让他真切而强烈的感到自己活着。但是接踵而来的感觉不是内疚而是失望。这不是他所向往的美妙感觉,也许下次会完美的。他的目标就是再夺走一个人的生命,他执迷于他将要完成的每一个细节。”

                        -Helen Hudson

“我不想伤害他们,我只想让他们死。”
                 
                        -David Berkowitz



              引言


        “我嗅到了血腥味和一个疯子的时代“
               
                        --W.H. Auden

无论何时何地你都可以看见的。像电视连续剧“Millennium”或是“profiler“,像电影“seven“或是“copycat”,像畅销书“Red Dragon” 或是“Science of the lambs”,等等。所有这些娱乐科幻作品看上去都非常奇怪而且不可思议,但是正如他们所说的:真实事件比科幻小说更离奇。犯罪侧写是在“Millennium”中被誉为解开犯罪谜团的新科技。什么,真的,你说的是侧写吗?在接下来的几业中,我会告诉你有关犯罪侧写,犯罪类型,和我们怎样进入杀手的头脑中的...

“我看到了杀手看到的东西,我把自己放进了他的头脑中。我变成了我最害怕的人。我变得很有力量,非常恐怖。在黑暗的内心深处我们会变成他们。这是我的天赋,也许也是我的诅咒。”
                    
                    --Frank Black    


侧写是一种通过收集犯罪现场的全方面资料,然后重塑罪犯心理发展过程的一种方法,心理蓝图涵盖了每个方面,包括性别,年龄,职业,成长经历,婚姻状况,家庭情况,甚至罪犯在作案时开的车,等等。我们把做这种调查的人称为侧写员。侧写员还必须给出罪犯在作案时的各种细节,包括在他们杀人时的心理活动。就算他们无法直接提供行凶者或是嫌疑犯的姓名,他们提供的资料也有助于警方所定目标。

并不是所有的案子,都需要犯罪侧写,即使是强奸案或是谋杀案也不一定。这些技术一般提供给连环杀人案以及极端暴力案件。如果案件中有儿童失踪,我们也会提供这种技术。越是暴力案件,越有侧写的需要。

当极端暴力案件发生后,侧写员会进入犯罪现场。这时调查人员可能已经知道了案发时间,和凶手作案模式以及在未来凶手将会怎样作案。如果调查人员无法了解到犯罪嫌疑人的任何讯息,他们也会去找侧写员。这些经验丰富的侧写员知道怎样处理这种情况。如果一个案件长时间无法侦破,侧写员也将被派往现场;当调查人员竭尽所能仍无法突破时,他们会去找侧写员请求帮忙。

侧写员可以帮助他们很大程度上的缩小嫌疑人范围。侧写员可以帮助警方了解他们要找的嫌疑犯是哪种人。侧写员在看了犯罪现场或是犯罪现场的照片之后可以提出更细节化的追踪方向。

“在看了那些法医报告和现场证据之后,我试着去体会那些受害人的感觉,他们的生存情况是什么样的。我想要得到那些画面。然后那些画面就出现在我的眼前了。”
        
                 --Samantha Waters

设立在Quantico(FBI学院)调查支持科(ISU),位于室内射击场地下60英尺,可以用来作为核爆炸避难所,挤满了大大小小迷宫般的办公室。这里是国家暴力犯罪分析中心的一个部门。它还被称为行为科学调查科(或是BSU)。ISU或是BSU都是为了追捕连环杀手设立的。在这里有36为探员,但仅有10位是全职侧写员。其他的探员在VICAP工作,为劫持人质谈判提供建议,或是作为专家目击者到出席法庭。他们每次要接40或50个案子,而每年的工作量大约为11000个。

在70年代后期,侧写并没有被看好,大家都认为它更像是巫术。在那以前BSU就已经存在了,但是它只是用来传授技能(包括人质谈判,等等)。在1979年,犯罪侧写这个概念正式成立。然后,FBI组织了一系列的与各类罪犯的会谈来建立一个影像,包括了各类犯罪动机和罪犯使用过得给类行凶手段。从1979年到1983年,他们建立了一个巨大的数据库用来存放各类侧写资料以及所有可能描绘的人格品质。

FBI看上去把侧写当成了一种兴趣爱好。没有想学会使用它。直到1982年当成功率上升后,FBI才慢慢开始正式使用它。到了80年代,在FBI中也只有50%的人相信侧写的作用。

“没有人可以真正的对它置之不理。每天都有人承受不了压力倒下了。工作太多了...我们在很脏的地方可笑的花费了大量的时间。我们得不到更多的人力资源。”
                      --John Douglas

让他们进入罪犯的思维不是让让他们也变成“魔鬼”?也许,这就是为什么所有的侧写员都需要受过足够的教育,比方说只有获得博士文凭才能加入BSU。个人能力不能说是最重要,至少也是非常重要的。因为他们必须要有足够的能力来应付超负荷工作和他们工作的独特性。

“无论是谁和魔鬼交锋每一步都要小心不要变成魔鬼。当你往湖里看你的影子的时候,湖里的影子也在看着你。”
                       
                          --Neitzche

在X档案中,有一集(怪异图案),描述了一个侧写员Bill Patterson, 在追捕一个喜欢将被害人的脸完全毁容的连环杀手三年,终于将他逮捕归案之后,自己变成了一个“魔鬼”开始按照连环杀手的模式杀人了。这是很有可能的。当我们在讨论杀人犯时,我们通常会觉得义愤填膺,非常生气。而侧写员却想尽一切办法把自己想象成他们。一个侧写员可以和一个杀人犯肩并肩的坐在一个牢房里,一起嘲笑一个可怕谋杀案的细节。侧写员会对杀人犯的所作所为表示愤怒。但是为了了解他们,知道他们在想什么,侧写员们只能按照他们的思维去思考。

“我现在知道洞察力的价值了。事实上,我们只是在追踪魔鬼,所以我们必须先了解他们,我们冒险进入了他们的头脑中,但是这么做,我们是不是也在冒险把他们带进我们的头脑中呢?”
                          --Dana Scully
 
现在,我要说的是连环杀手。首先,什么是谋杀?根据连环杀手网站上提供的资料,谋杀就是“一个人蓄意,不合法的杀死另一个人。这不包括:过失致死,自杀,谋杀未遂,意外,或是正当自卫。”

Frank Black说道:“杀手看到的世界和别人看到的不一样。”
Bob Bletcher:“他看到的世界是什么样的?”
Frank Black:“就是不一样的。”

谋杀可以分为两类:第一类是一个事件的结果:一场争执,愤怒,被侮辱的反应,出于嫉妒,等等。第二种是有计划性的谋杀:为了获得财富,为了复仇,为了保护自己,或是为了权利。

既然我们知道了什么是谋杀,我们再来定义一下连环杀手
1.   有多名受害人(3个或以上)
2.   他永远不会停止杀人,除非是我们阻止他,或是别的外界事   物阻止他。他也许会有一段“冷静期”(一个月,几年,不   等)   但是最终他会再次作案。
3.   凶手和被害人之间互相不认识或者没有过接触。
4.   连环杀手一般单独工作。当他们合作时,他们作案时间也会   有先后。举个例子:杀手A在Vancouver杀了人,杀手B在Qué   bec杀   了人。但是杀手A永远不会和杀手B一起杀同一个人。
5.   杀手的动机不是为了钱,或是别的东西。他喜欢杀人,需要   杀人,就像我们需要和水一样。

杀人狂不是连环杀手。比方说,一个男人冲进麦当劳开枪打死了里面的每一个人,最后自杀。他在5分钟内杀死了一群人,其间没有冷静期。

连环杀手可以分为四类。第一类是动机幻想型。他们一般被认为不正常或是患有精神障碍。他们的头脑里可以听到声音让他们去杀人。第二类是动机任务型。他们觉得有责任将那些没有道德的,没有价值的人(比如说妓女之类的)从社会上除去。第三类是动机兴奋型。他们杀人纯粹是为了快乐。他们享受杀人。最后一种是色欲杀人犯。他们杀人完全是为了自己。在大多数案件中,连环杀手都是色欲杀人犯。

连环杀手可以分为两个等级:没有预谋型和预谋型杀手。每有预谋型的罪犯通常患有精神疾病,才会计划杀人。他们没有很符合逻辑的犯罪手段,受害人身上遗留下的伤口通常很相似。他们因为一时冲动杀人。他们会使用暴力,而且会忘记自己的犯罪过程。他们一有机会就会选择受害人。他们会随手使用武器,甚至是一支铅笔。他们不会开自己的车去犯罪现场。他们会用尽所有的方法让受害人失去意识,通常他们还会支解受害人。他们对尸体会产生狂热的依恋。他们把受害人留在犯罪现场。当他们从媒体上看到自己的罪行后,会恐慌不安,不能理解。他们在学校,社会,工作的单位都会有不良记录。他们通常被认为一钱不值。

预谋型杀手会预先对每件事做好计划,包括他会使用什么武器,弃尸地点选在哪里。每次谋杀都增加了他的幻觉,随着受害人的增加,他的杀人技巧也会增加。他会从经过的人中挑选受害人。他智商很高,而且会使用各种狡猾的手段骗取受害人的信任。他们看上去都很正常甚至非常光鲜;在人群里,人们不可能认为她是个杀人犯。他会利用受害人的弱点来引诱受害人,最终达到自己的目的。兴奋的根源在于整个追踪,捕获到折磨受害人给他带来的刺激感。受害人的挣扎会提高暴力程度。他通常可以很好的控制自己;他花了很长时间计划。他会改变自己的作案模式来迷惑警方。他会把尸体埋在某个特定的地点,或者把它暴露在野外来绷紧警方的神经。他会让警方不停的追踪。他甚至会匿名的提供线索。他很享受政府的疑惑。他认为他比别人聪明的多没有人能抓住他。

“十个连环杀手中有九个是白种男人,年龄从20到35之间,就像这样(在听众面前提到了白种男人)
                     
                      -- Helen Hudson

我一直在用“他”。不是因为读起来容易,而是因为10个连环杀手中的九个都是白种男人,年龄在20-35之间。连环杀手通常会选择受害人。据John Douglas说,最难针对的是年龄。他们会杀各种年龄层的人;一个25岁杀手可以杀掉一个5岁的小孩或是一个85岁的老太太,这全凭他的兴趣。我们要记住的是他完全不认识他的受害人,更不会恨他们。

“Albert DeSalvo, Bianci and Buono, Berkowitz, Dahmer, Ted Bundy -他们看上去都很安静,谦虚,甚至还很漂亮。他们有自己的工作,很好的邻里关系。他们的受害人都很信任他们。”

                   -- Helen Hudson

我们通常认为杀人犯不是愤世嫉俗的,就是神经不正常。大错特错!他们所做的一切需要极高的智商。像一个爆破犯,他必须非常细致,聪明去制作一个炸弹。有的案子里凶手的智商都比较低,或是正常。但是通常情况下蓄意连环杀手的智商都非常高。我们认为他们都很孤僻,没什么社交生活。他们喜欢模仿政界要人。其实这些杀人犯看上去都衣着光鲜,可以和任何人友好的交谈。他可以是任何人。他可以是便利店的营业员,可以是你和蔼的邻居。他看上去很正常,没有人认为他是个罪犯。往往你认为最不可能是凶手的人,他就是凶手。他可以使任何人。

“我一直相信魔鬼生来就有一个冰冷的心和脆弱的灵魂。”
                    -- Mike Atkins

正如我所说的,一个杀手可能是任何人,但这并不意味着一个很英俊的男人从街道那边走过来,几秒钟后他就会变成一个连环杀手。所有的事往往起源于童年。许多连环杀手在小的时候都受过虐待。虐待可能使身体虐待,也可能是性虐待,甚至是感情上的忽略。这些受虐待经历会对他们的将来产生深远的影响。一些连环杀手在小的时候残杀过小动物。在他们的童年,他们就有过令人警惕的虐待行为。36%的杀手残杀过小动物,意味着如果你的孩子喜欢折磨小动物,你的孩子也不一定会成为杀手。连环杀手不止残害小动物,他们还喜欢虐待其他的孩子,或是将芭比娃娃毁容。在附录中,你会看到未来成为连环杀手的行为发展过程。

Bailey Malone:“我们需要了解这些受害人。”
John Grant:“可能迟了点。”
Bailey Malone:“我的一个朋友有个理论。他说像这样的谋杀,凶手和被害人之间就像在跳一场很残酷而亲密的舞。”

受害人全纪录是“受害人的完整记录,包括生平,性格,职业等等。”它包括了:家庭背景,声誉,喜好,药物/酒精滥用记录,财政状况,最后和受害人交谈的人,仇人,日常生活习惯,等等。根据以上的信息。侧写员还想知道:为什么凶手会选择这个人作为他的受害人?受害人全纪录缩小了罪犯类型。他们可以公开警告公众杀手正在杀害哪一类的受害者。(比如金发,蓝眼睛,6英尺高的女性)。通过早期行动技术的建议可以帮助理解罪犯心理,提高警方审讯技巧,找到受害人的共同点,锁定凶犯类型。还可以帮助公众意识到哪一类人正处于危险之中。






                            结论

“FBI估计就在我说话的当口上,至少有35个连环杀手正在蹂躏受害人。”

                          --Helen Hudson

“根据FBI数据统计,就在你看这篇文章的时候,12起强奸案发生了...每5分钟一起。”

在过去没有人是安全的,现在没有,将来也不会有。500个连环杀手正在美国的街头逍遥法外(并不像文章开头所说的那样)。进入杀手的思维去剖析他的心路历程对于侦破案件的确很有帮助。但是犯罪永远存在着。为了把Ted Bundy送上电椅,花了整整8百万美元。为什么不把这些钱花在阻止他犯罪,或是加强保安呢?我们是不是应该希望在将来可以在Ted Bundy 犯罪之前就将他绳之以法呢 几乎所有的连环杀手都是悲惨童年经历的产物,我想我们应该将犯罪扼死在摇篮里。



附录

ANNEX


Frequency of Reported Behavior Indicators in Childhood

Behavior ChildhoodNumber of     %
Daydreaming     28     82
Compulsive masturbation     28     82
Isolation     28     71
Chronic Lying     28     71
Enuresis (bed wetting)     22     68
Rebelliousness     27     67
Nightmares     24     67
Destroying property     26     58
Fire Setting     25     56
Stealing     27     56
Cruelty to Children     28     54
Poor body image     27     52
Temper Tantrums     27     48
Sleep Problems     23     48
Assaultive to Adults     25     38
Phobias     24     38
Running Away     28     36
Cruelty to animals     28     36
Accident Prone     24     29
Headaches     21     29
Destroying Possessions     25     28
Eating Problems     26     27
Convulsions     26     19
Self-mutilation     26     19



“在他开始调查我之后,很快,他就会知道,对于我,他的所有才能都毫无用处。他会开始意识到我不是他一贯侧写的连环杀手的那种类型。不,我和他们相差很远。我不是来自一个破碎的家庭。他不能在我的童年中找到任何谋杀的痕迹-没有纵过火,没有
淹过床,没有残杀过动物。我受过良好教育,有责任感,富裕-直到最近我还不是一个人。他会根据我的行为来推测我的性格。他会估计我的作案行为,根据作案现场的具体细节分析我的作案过程,他很清楚这些。在加强对罪犯特点侧写之前,他会毫无头绪,真的是毫无头绪。因为在这以前,我没有任何前科。这是他从未经历过的。挫折,苦恼,甚至愤怒,然后他会开始调查我喜欢寄给他的那些痛苦的照片。考虑到其他一些不太重要的问题后,他会开始考虑一些复杂的理论,比如说幻觉失衡或是照片的性欲倒错,等等。 最终,他会一无所获。然后一旦他的研究从我还有你身上转开后,他的天赋会给他指出一个正确的方向。他会知道指一切其实都和他有关。侧写会变成他自己的侧写,他会问他自己是谁,他会成为谁,他以前是谁...

      --神经质男人 (给受害人 Catherine Black的一封信)


“想要了解一个艺术家,你必须先了解他的作品。”

                        --Mulder


[ 此贴被annagao在2004-07-30 23:33重新编辑 ]


Welcome to the real world! It sucks, you gonna to love it

[楼 主] | Posted: 2004-07-30 18:38 顶端
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原文:

Written by Christophe Huynh
LongCHuynh@mailcity.com
http://www.angelfire.com/ca/BelieveTheLie/index.html

“Screams of the victim deaden in his pain. The act of killing makes him feel intensively alive. What he feels next is not guilt but disappointment. It was not as wonderful as he’d hoped. Maybe next time, it will be perfect. And as his determination builds to take another life, he plans in obsessive detail what props he’ll bring, what knots he’ll tie.”
-- Helen Hudson


"I didn't want to hurt them, I only wanted to kill them."
-- David Berkowitz


INTRODUCTION


"I smell blood and an era of prominent madmen."
--W.H. Auden

You see it almost everywhere. Series like Millennium or Profiler on television, movies like Seven or Copycat, books like Red Dragon or Silence of the Lambs, etc. All those entertaining fictional stories are very strange and seem implausible but like they say: the truth is stranger than fiction. Criminal profiling is a very reputed technique to solve crime in this turn of the millennium. What, actually, is profiling? In the following pages, I will tell you about criminal profiling, the types of criminals, and we will venture into the mind of a killer…




“I see what the killer sees. I put myself in his head. I become the thing we fear the most. I become capability. I become the horror. What we know we can become only in our heart of darkness. It's my gift. It's my curse.”
  --Frank Black      

Profiling is a way to build a psychological portrait of a person who committed a crime by examining all aspects of the crime scene. This psychological picture is very complete including sex, age, occupation, upbringing, marital status, home, type of car the criminal drive, etc. The person who makes such an insight is called a profiler. The profiler can also give the details about how the crime was committed, how a killer felt when he killed. Even if all this doesn’t provide the name of the perpetrator or UNSUB (Unknown Subject), it gave them the information to look up a suspect who fits the profile.

Not all cases, even if it is a rape or a murder, will use criminal profiling. This technique is used for a crime of a serial nature and extremely violent. Crimes involving missing children are also eligible for profiling. The more violent the crime, the more likely it would be profiled.

A profiler is called in when there is an extremely violent crime and the investigators have already seen this time of murder, they already know the killer’s modus operandi for a future homicide he will commit. The profiler may be also called if the investigators don’t know anything about the UNSUB and they did experienced people who know how to deal with it. A profiler might be called in if the crime has remained unsolved for a long period of time; all the leads have been used and the investigators have done all what they can think of.

A profiler narrows the search of the UNSUB greatly. The profiler will let the law enforcement agency know what type of person they are most likely looking for. Profilers are able to get more specific by looking at either the crime scene or crime scene photographs.

“I look at the forensic evidence, try to get a feel for the victims, what their lives are like. I tend to think in images, so I just sort of picture it happening.”
--Samantha Waters

The Investigative Support Unit (or ISU) is situated in Quantico (the FBI Academy), in a cramped maze of offices sixty feet beneath the indoor firing range, which used to be a nuclear fall-out shelter. It is part of the National Center for the Analysis of Violent Crime. It is also called the Behavioral Science Unit (or BSU). The ISU or BSU is used to catch serial killers. There are 36 agents but only ten are full time profilers. The others work in VICAP, advise in hostage negotiations, and appear in court as expert witnesses. They each work 40 or 50 cases at once which makes around 11,000 cases by year.

Profiling wasn’t taken seriously in the late seventies and people thought it was like witchcraft. The BSU did exist before then but it was used to teach (hostage negotiation, etc). It was in 1979 that the idea of profiling the criminals was made. There was then a project of interviews with convicted criminals to build up a picture of the various motives and methods that criminals used. Between 1979 and 1983, they made up a large database of profiles and personality traits that can be drawn.

The FBI seemed to regard that as a hobby. No one seemed to want to use it. It was only by 1982 that the FBI slowly began using it as the success increased. In the eighties, only 50% of the FBI really approved profiling.

“No one can ever really shrug it off. We have people burning out from stress down here. There’s too much work.… We work ridiculous hours in lousy space. We haven’t the resources to take on any more people.”
--John Douglas

Doing such insight into the criminal mind doesn’t make them becoming “monsters”? Maybe, that is why profilers need to have academic qualification such as a Ph.D. to join the BSU. Personal qualifications are very, if not the most, important. They are chosen for the ability to cope with the huge workload and the type of work they do.

“Whoever fights monsters should see to it in the process he does not become a monster. And when you look into the abyss, the abyss also looks into you.”
--Neitzche

In an X-Files episode (Grotesque), there was a profiler, Bill Patterson, who, after pursuing for three years a serial killer who completely mutilated the faces of his victims, became a “monster” and started to kill like the serial killer. This too is necessary. If we talk to a killer, we will go in all self-righteous and angry. Profilers win their trust, try as hard as they can to actually think like them. A profiler and a killer can be sitting next to each other in a cell and laughing together at the details of a gruesome murder. The profiler mustn’t get angry at what the killer has done. They must walk a mile in his (the killer) shoes, laugh with them and think on their level.

“I see now the value of such insight. For truly to pursue monsters, we must understand them, we must venture into their minds. only by doing so, do we risk letting them venture into ours?”
--Dana Scully

Now, I will talk about serial killers. First at all, what is murder? According to the Serial Killer Website, a murder is “the willful and unlawful killing of one human being by another. This does not include: deaths caused by negligence, suicide, attempted murder, accident, or justifable homicide.”

Frank Black: "The killer doesn't see the world like everyone else."
Bob Bletcher: "How does he see it?"
Frank Black: "Differently."

Murderers are devided into two categories. The first is the outcome of an event: a quarrel, rage, reaction to an insult, jealousy, etc. The second is a planning of the killing: monetery gains, revenge, proctection of oneself, or power.

Now that we know what is a murder, we will define a serial killer.
1.      There are mutiple victims (3 or mores)
2.      He will kill forever unless we stop him or an event occurs to stop him. He may have a “cooling off” period (a month, several years, etc) but he will eventually continue.
3.      The killer and the victim do not know each other and don’t have previous contact.
4.      Serial killers generally work alone. When they work together, they kill in tandem. They do not separate to kill. For exemple, killer a kills in Vancouver and the killer b kills in Québec. It will never happen if the killers a and b work together.
5.      His motive isn’t for money or the outcome of an event. He likes to kill, he needs to kill as we need to drink water.

A mass murderer is not a serial killer. For exemple, a man enters in a McDonald’s and starts to shot everyone and then himself. He kills several people in a about five minutes and there is no cooling off period.

There are four distinctive types of serial killers. The first is the Visionary Motive Type. They are considered insane and psychotic. They hear voices in their head telling them to kill. The second is the Missionary-Oriented Motive Type. They had a need to rid the world of what they considered immoral or unworthy people (prostitutes, etc.) The third is the Thrill-Oriented Motive Type. They are in it for pure fun. They enjoy killing. The last is the Lust Killer. They kill for the pure turn-on. In most cases, a serial murderer is a lust killer.

The serial killer is divided into two sub-categories: the disorganized and the organized killers. The disorganized is a criminal too mentally ill to plan his killings. There is no logical pattern of execution but the post-mortem wounds are unsually similar to each other. He kills on impulse. He will use force and will not remember his crime. He chooses his victims given the opportunity. He will used any weapons he has in hands even if it is a pencil and will not drive his own car to the crime scene. He depersonalized his victim in any way possible, usually mutilated him/her. He will committed necrophilia or even canabalism. He leaves the victim where he killed them. He will watched his exploits in the media. He lives in a state of chaos which he cannot understand. He has a past record of poor performance in school, in social situations, in his job. He is usually sloppy and a “night-owl”.

The organized killer is premidative and plans everything to the tools he will use to the dump sites. Each kill adds to his fantasy and as the number of victims increases, so does his expertise. He will choose a victim from someone from his past. He is very intelligent and will use cunning, guile and a variety of ways to convince the victim to come with him. He appears normal and even charming; he can be in a crowd and we will not be able to distingush him as a killer. He will lure his victims and use their vulnerabilities to exploit them to his advantage. The source of excitement is the thrill of the pursuit, the capture and the torture of his victim. The struggle of the victim will escalate the amount of violence. He is always in control; he planned all this for a long time. He will vary his modus operandi to confuse the police. He will often bury the bodies at a specific site or will leave them out in the open to taunt the police. He will keep everything about the police pursuit. He often calls anonymously to offer hints. He enjoys watching the confusion of the authorities. He thinks that he is more intelligent and he will never be caught unless he wants to be.

“Nine out of ten serial killers are white males, age 20-35, jst like these (refering to the white men in the audience)
-- Helen Hudson

I always said “he”. It is not for making the text easier to read but because 9 out of 10 serial killers are white males, between 20-35. Serial killers usually kills people from their race. According to John Douglas, the most difficult trait to identifiy is the age. They could kill someone from any age; a killer who is 25 years old can kill a 5 years old child or a 85 old woman, depending on his interests. We have to remember that he doesn’t know his victims and often have a particular hatred for them.

“Albert DeSalvo, Bianci and Buono, Berkowitz, Dahmer, Ted Bundy – they were quiet, unassuming, even nice. They held down jobs, they made decent neighbors. Their victims trusted them.”
-- Helen Hudson

We often think that a killer is a retarded and psychotic person. Wrong! To do what they do, they need intelligence. Like a bomber, he must be very precise and must be intelligent to build a bomb. There are cases of killers who are below the I.Q. average, but generally, they are above. We also think that they are total loners who cannot function in society. They like to impersonate authority figures. The killer will dress neatly and can have a friendly little chat with anyone. He could be anybody. He could be the guy at the grocerie store or your friendly neighbor. He appears normal and everyone will not considered him as a criminal. A killer is often the person you expect the least. He is everybody.

"I've always believed that evil is born in a cold heart and a weak mind."
-- Mike Atkins

Like I said, the killer can be anybody but it doesn’t mean that the guy down the street who is very nice will suddenly turn into a serial killer in a matter of seconds. It all begins in their childhood. Many serial killers were abused as children. The levels and type of abuse range from sexual to physical, to neglect and emontional. Those abuses will alter the future of the child dramatically generally. Some have been cruel to animals. In their childhood, they acted in a very sadistic manner which was very alarming. 36% of the killers were cruel to animals, which means that if your child likes to inflict pain, it doesn’t necessary means that he will become a murderer. Sadism is not limited to animals, they can be crual to children or even objects like mutilating Barbie dolls. In the annex, you will find a chart of behevioral traits of future serial killers.

Bailey Malone: “We need to know the victims.”
John Grant: “It’s a little late for that.”
Bailey Malone: “A friend of mine has a theory. Says murder like this is a kind of gruesome intmacy that requires both people like a dance.”

Victimology is the “complete history of the victim, including life-style, personality traits, employment and so on.” It includes: Family backround, reputation of the victim, likes and dislikes, drug/alcohol abuse, financial troubles, last known person who spoke with the victim, enemies, routines, etc. Above all this information, the profiler wants to know: why did the offender chose this person to be his victim? Victimology narrows tremendously the criminal type. It will be used to warn the public to what type of victims the killer is killing (like a woman with blond hair, blue eyes and 6 feet tall). It helps by suggesting pro-active techniques to bring the offender closer to apprehension, advising law enforcement of interrogation techniques designed to get a particular offender to confess and to help find the common denominator among the victims to one, narrow the offender-type possibilities and two, to enable law enforcement to make the public aware of who is most likely to be in danger.

CONCLUSION

“The FBI estimates that there could be as many as 35 serial killers crusing for victims even as I speak.”
--Helen Hudson

“According to FBI statistics, while you have been watching “Profiler”, 12 rapes have been reported… one every five minutes.”

No one was safe in the past, no one is safe in the present and no one will be in the future. Five hundred serial killers are loose in the streets of America (unlikely what the first quote is saying). Entering the mind of the killer to paint his psychological portrait is very useful and helps a lot but there was and will always be crime somewhere, somehow. The electrocution of Ted Bundy cost almost $8 million. Wouldn’t that money be better spent keeping him confined for life, subject to an intense scientific scrutiny? Isn’t our best hope to try to identify the Ted Bundies of the future before they kill? Almost all serial killers were the product of society or the cause of a bad childhood, I think we should be aware of that and try to prevent the birth of a criminal.


ANNEX


Frequency of Reported Behavior Indicators in Childhood

Behavior      ChildhoodNumber of       %
Daydreaming      28      82
Compulsive masturbation      28      82
Isolation      28      71
Chronic Lying      28      71
Enuresis (bed wetting)      22      68
Rebelliousness      27      67
Nightmares      24      67
Destroying property      26      58
Fire Setting      25      56
Stealing      27      56
Cruelty to Children      28      54
Poor body image      27      52
Temper Tantrums      27      48
Sleep Problems      23      48
Assaultive to Adults      25      38
Phobias      24      38
Running Away      28      36
Cruelty to animals      28      36
Accident Prone      24      29
Headaches      21      29
Destroying Possessions      25      28
Eating Problems      26      27
Convulsions      26      19
Self-mutilation      26      19





“And soon, he’ll come to understand this as he works to get inside me. With me, his gift is useless. I don’’t fit into the serial killer profile he’’s come to understand. No, I am so far beyond I wasn’’t from a broken home. He will find no homicidal triad in my childhood -- no setting of fire, no bed-wetting. no cruelty to animals. I’’ve had a formal education, responsibility, money –-- until recently, not a loner. He’’ll work on the principle that behavior reflects personality. He’’ll evaluated the crimal act, itself then the specific of the crime scene, analyze the victim which of course, he knows well. Before attempting the development of a profile of a criminal offender characteristics. This will lead him nowhere, absolutely nowhere, because until now, I’’ve committed no crime. This is something he’’s never experienced before. Frustrated, agonized, angry even, he’’ll turn to those torturous photographs I’’m so fond of mailing. He’’ll consider complex theories regarding grandiose subtypes of delusional disorder or even photographic paraphilia, blah, blah, blah. Ultimately, he will sense that none of it applies. Then, once his search turns away from me and you, his gift will point him directly in the right directioin. He’’ll understand this is all about him. The profile will become about him, who he is, who he’’’ll be, who he’’s been……………
--The Paraoid Guy (to Catherine Black, the victim)


“To know an artist, you have to look at his art.”
--Mulder


Welcome to the real world! It sucks, you gonna to love it

[1 楼] | Posted: 2004-07-30 19:53 顶端
angel_white


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扇子对工作好敬业哦
鼓掌鼓掌
让我想起了我高中的班主任
做事好认真
哪怕有一点点的疑问都会翻好多资料直到把问题解决
好敬佩~~~~~~`


相信自己,相信奇迹

[2 楼] | Posted: 2004-07-30 20:24 顶端
XTosti




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感谢扇子为大家着想,我好惭愧,原文一年前就看过了,可是论坛上那么多有关的提问,我从来没有回答过。 还是扇子帮了大家。。。。建议置顶。。。

我是小猪,我要跟着大猪,那样我才有饭吃。
[3 楼] | Posted: 2004-07-30 22:59 顶端
fatcow



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很好,楼主不光厉害,还很辛苦!
[4 楼] 未知地址 | Posted: 2004-07-31 09:17 顶端
扇子


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翻译这种文章是最舒服了,非常享受,它理论清楚,逻辑合理,又没什么废话,也不是太长,对于提高翻译水平最有帮助。

Welcome to the real world! It sucks, you gonna to love it

[5 楼] | Posted: 2004-07-31 09:35 顶端
扇子


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在HIDDEN THINGS多次提及了“斯德哥尔摩综合症“,我想大多数人对这个名词都很不了解(包括我),在GOOGLE上搜索了一下之后,我做出了一下一点简单的介绍。

什么是斯德哥尔摩综合症?

1973年,四个瑞典人质在一次银行抢劫中被困在银行金库6天后成为了银行抢劫犯的追随者,这种现象我们把它称为斯德哥尔摩综合症。据心理学家称,被劫人质通过和劫持者建立这种关系来忍受劫持者的暴力行为。

                        - Timeline50

对恐怖主义的心理反应
——Rev. Fr. Charles T. Brusca                    
1973年8月23日,星期二,上午10点15分,在瑞典首都斯德哥尔摩的 "Sveriges Kreditbank" 发出的半自动机关枪的枪声震惊了整个瑞典。32岁的逃犯-Jan-Erik Olsson说道:“舞会才刚刚开始”,是的,这个整个事件整整持续了131个小时,也就是5天半,Olsson将四名银行职员囚禁在一个11X47英尺的金库中直到8月28日夜晚。

本来 "Sveriges Kreditbank"发生的抢劫案并不至于引起世界的震惊,只是后来在对四名人质进行做笔录的时候,意想不到的事情发生了——同样的结果在未来的几年中不断的发生在其他“劫持事件”中。就连被劫者自己都无法解释原因,他们和劫持者之间建立了一种很奇怪的关系,他们对最终被解救充满了恐惧,他们对劫持者的行为产生了共鸣。在有些案件中,他们后来甚至以他们自己的名义,或是募捐资金来为那些劫持者辩护。这种精神上的异变被以“Sveriges Kreditbank”所在地的地名命名为 “斯德哥尔摩综合症”。

在对这种劫持事件或是类似的劫持事件做了长期的心理研究以后,我们对于斯德哥尔摩综合症的症状有了很清楚细节化的定义:

被劫者开始认同他的劫持者。至少在一开始这是一种自卫机制,建立在(通常是无意识的)这样一种思想上,他认为只要他合作甚至支持劫持者的想法,劫持者就不会伤害他。被劫者会用一些很小儿科的方法来寻找机会想赢得劫持者的好感。

被劫者通常认为未来将会采取行动来营救他们的人更有可能伤害他而不是放他自由。营救企图也许会使现在现在还可以忍受的环境变成他的坟墓。如果警方的子弹没能击中劫持者,那么受到挑衅的劫持者的子弹很有可能射向他。

被劫者通过拒绝承认事件的真实发生,他在心理上,把自己和自己所处的环境分离开来。他会幻想这一切“只是一场梦而已”,或是让自己处于长时间睡眠状态,或是产生出自己已经被营救出去的幻觉。他们会不断的做一些除了消耗时间外毫无用处的“忙碌工作”来让自己忘记自己身处的环境。根据他对劫持者的认同程度不同,他也许会否认劫持者所做的事是错的,他们因为自己身处的环境而责怪未来的营救人员和他们不断的刺激劫持者的行为。


NOTES:
1. Information on the robbery and subsequent psychological analysis of the victims may be found in Frank M. Ochberg & David A. Soskis, eds., Victims of Terrorism, Boulder Colorado: Westview Press, 1982.


Welcome to the real world! It sucks, you gonna to love it

[6 楼] | Posted: 2004-08-01 13:50 顶端
charlotte048


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No permission to view this article

Mulder! 等等我~~ 哎呦!Scully快点,我看到小绿人了!
[7 楼] | Posted: 2004-08-01 13:52 顶端
XTosti




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我觉得作者并不是指那个专门的斯德哥尔摩综合症,而是PTSD。。不知道怎么翻译,扇子来吧。(post-traumatic stress disorder)

我是小猪,我要跟着大猪,那样我才有饭吃。
[8 楼] | Posted: 2004-08-01 21:55 顶端
扇子


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PSTD 是指在目睹死亡威胁之后的精神紊乱。这种死亡威胁可以是来自战争,自然灾害,人为灾难,暴力侵犯。患有这种精神疾病的人通常受回忆,噩梦的困扰。甚至还会导致睡眠困难。这类人会感觉自己被孤立,被遗弃。这些病症将会影响病人很长时间,严重破坏病人身体健康。这种紊乱还会破坏病人的家庭,社交生活,导致病人很多怪异行为。

我想这两种精神疾病之间还是有很大区别的。


Welcome to the real world! It sucks, you gonna to love it

[9 楼] | Posted: 2004-08-02 09:05 顶端
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